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Updated: Apr 6


  1. Political Legacy: Indira Gandhi was the first and, to date, the only female Prime Minister of India. She served as Prime Minister for a total of four terms, making her one of the longest-serving leaders in Indian political history.

  2. Family Background: She was born into the Nehru-Gandhi family, which has played a significant role in Indian politics. Her father, Jawaharlal Nehru, was the first Prime Minister of independent India.

  3. Emergency Rule: Indira Gandhi declared a state of Emergency in India from 1975 to 1977, suspending civil liberties and imposing censorship. This period was marked by authoritarian rule and political repression.

  4. Operation Blue Star: She ordered Operation Blue Star in 1984 to remove Sikh militants from the Golden Temple in Amritsar. The operation led to significant casualties and damage to the temple complex, and it fueled Sikh separatist sentiment.

  5. Assassination: Indira Gandhi was assassinated on October 31, 1984, by her Sikh bodyguards in retaliation for Operation Blue Star. Her death triggered anti-Sikh riots in several parts of India, resulting in widespread violence and loss of life.

  6. International Relations: During her tenure as Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi pursued a policy of non-alignment in foreign affairs. She maintained relations with both the Eastern Bloc and Western countries while asserting India's independence in global politics.

  7. Garibi Hatao (Remove Poverty): One of her key political slogans was "Garibi Hatao," which translates to "Remove Poverty." She implemented various social and economic policies aimed at reducing poverty and promoting social welfare.

  8. Bangladesh Liberation War: Indira Gandhi played a crucial role in supporting the independence movement of Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan) during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. India's intervention helped secure victory for Bangladesh and earned her widespread praise.

  9. Marital Status: Indira Gandhi was married to Feroze Gandhi, a prominent politician and journalist. However, their marriage faced challenges, and they lived separately for several years before Feroze Gandhi's death in 1960.

  10. Recognition: In addition to her political achievements, Indira Gandhi was honored with various awards and accolades during her lifetime, including the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award.


  1. Early Life: Rani Lakshmi Bai was born on November 19, 1828, in Varanasi, India, as Manikarnika Tambe. She was affectionately called Manu.

  2. Marriage: She was married to Maharaja Gangadhar Rao Niwalkar of Jhansi in 1842 and became the queen consort of the princely state of Jhansi.

  3. Adoption: The couple didn't have children, so they adopted a son named Damodar Rao in 1853. However, the British East India Company refused to recognize the adoption and annexed Jhansi after Maharaja Gangadhar Rao's death in 1853.

  4. Resistance Against British Rule: Rani Lakshmi Bai became a central figure in the Indian Rebellion of 1857. She refused to accept the British annexation of Jhansi and played a key role in organizing the local rebellion against British rule.

  5. Military Leadership: Known for her bravery and military skills, Rani Lakshmi Bai led her forces into battle against the British during the siege of Jhansi. She dressed as a man and fought alongside her soldiers.

  6. Death in Battle: Rani Lakshmi Bai died on June 17, 1858, during the Battle of Gwalior while fighting against British forces. She was only 29 years old at the time of her death.

  7. Symbol of Resistance: Rani Lakshmi Bai is remembered as a symbol of resistance against British colonialism in India. Her courage and sacrifice inspired generations of freedom fighters in India's struggle for independence.

  8. Iconic Horse Riding: One of the iconic images associated with Rani Lakshmi Bai is her riding into battle on horseback, sword in hand, leading her troops fearlessly.

  9. Memorials and Tributes: Several memorials and monuments have been erected in honor of Rani Lakshmi Bai, including the Rani Mahal in Jhansi, which served as her palace, and the Rani Jhansi Marine National Park in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

  10. Legends and Folklore: Rani Lakshmi Bai's life and deeds have become the subject of numerous legends, songs, poems, and folk tales, highlighting her legendary status in Indian history.


  1. Early Life: Subhas Chandra Bose was born on January 23, 1897, in Cuttack, Bengal Presidency (present-day Odisha, India).

  2. Educational Background: He studied at Presidency College, Calcutta (now Kolkata), and later at Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge, where he excelled academically.

  3. Indian National Congress: Bose initially aligned with the Indian National Congress (INC) and became one of its prominent leaders. However, he later grew disillusioned with the party's moderate approach to achieving independence.

  4. Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army): Bose formed the Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army or INA) in 1942, with the help of the Axis powers, primarily Japan and Germany, to fight against British colonial rule in India.

  5. "Give me blood, and I shall give you freedom": This iconic slogan was coined by Bose during his leadership of the INA. It became immensely popular and inspired many Indians to join the struggle for independence.

  6. Escape from British Captivity: Bose was put under house arrest by the British authorities in India. In 1941, he escaped from India, traveling by submarine to reach Germany and then later Japan.

  7. Radio Broadcasts: Bose used radio broadcasts, often from Germany and later from Southeast Asia, to communicate with Indians and rally support for the Indian independence movement.

  8. Death: The circumstances of Bose's death remain controversial and shrouded in mystery. He reportedly died in a plane crash on August 18, 1945, in Taiwan (then Formosa), although some theories suggest he may have survived and lived under an assumed identity.

  9. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport: The international airport in Kolkata, India, is named in honor of Subhas Chandra Bose.

  10. Legacy: Bose's legacy as a nationalist leader and his contributions to the Indian freedom struggle remain significant. He is remembered for his unwavering determination and commitment to achieving independence for India.


  1. Birth and Family: Jawaharlal Nehru was born on November 14, 1889, in Allahabad, British India. He hailed from a prominent Kashmiri Brahmin family.

  2. Education: Nehru received his education in England, studying at Harrow School and later at Trinity College, Cambridge. He was called to the bar at the Inner Temple in London but chose a career in politics over law.

  3. Independence Struggle: Nehru was deeply involved in the Indian independence movement led by Mahatma Gandhi. He played a significant role in the Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922) and the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-1934).

  4. First Prime Minister: Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of independent India on August 15, 1947, upon the country's independence from British rule.

  5. Panchsheel: Nehru played a key role in shaping India's foreign policy, particularly the doctrine of Panchsheel (Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence), which he co-authored with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai in 1954.

  6. Founding of Non-Aligned Movement: Nehru was instrumental in the founding of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) in 1961, advocating for a stance of neutrality in the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union.

  7. Five-Year Plans: Nehru implemented a series of Five-Year Plans to promote economic development and industrialization in India, with an emphasis on social welfare and the public sector.

  8. Death: Jawaharlal Nehru passed away on May 27, 1964, in New Delhi, India. His death marked the end of an era in Indian politics.

  9. Literary Works: Apart from his political career, Nehru was also a prolific writer and penned several books, including his autobiography "The Discovery of India" and "Glimpses of World History".

  10. Children: Nehru's daughter, Indira Gandhi, served as the Prime Minister of India, continuing his political legacy. His grandson, Rajiv Gandhi, also became the Prime Minister of India.


  1. Early Life: Mother Teresa was born as Anjezë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu on August 26, 1910, in Skopje, now the capital of North Macedonia. She was of Albanian descent.

  2. Religious Calling: At the age of 18, Mother Teresa left her home to join the Sisters of Loreto, an Irish community of nuns with missions in India.

  3. Missionaries of Charity: In 1950, Mother Teresa founded the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic religious congregation dedicated to helping the "poorest of the poor."

  4. Nobel Peace Prize: Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work, particularly for her efforts to aid the destitute and sick in Kolkata (Calcutta), India.

  5. Simple Lifestyle: Despite receiving numerous awards and accolades, Mother Teresa maintained a humble and simple lifestyle. She lived among the poor and served them directly, often without any personal comforts.

  6. Global Reach: The Missionaries of Charity grew from a small congregation in Kolkata to an international organization with branches in over 130 countries, serving the needy across the globe.

  7. Canonization: Mother Teresa was canonized as a saint by the Catholic Church on September 4, 2016, in recognition of her exemplary life of service and devotion to God.

  8. Care for Lepers: Mother Teresa opened a hospice for lepers in Titagarh, India, called Shanti Nagar (City of Peace), where those suffering from leprosy could find care and compassion.

  9. Rescue of Abandoned Children: She established Nirmal Hriday (Pure Heart), a home for abandoned and orphaned children in Kolkata, providing them with shelter, food, and education.

  10. Personal Sacrifices: Mother Teresa's dedication to serving others often meant she had to make personal sacrifices. She spent long hours in the slums of Kolkata, tending to the sick and dying, even as her health declined in later years.

  11. Lasting Legacy: Mother Teresa's legacy continues to inspire millions of people around the world to serve humanity with love, compassion, and selflessness.


  1. Nobel Prize in Literature: Tagore was the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, which he received in 1913 for his book of poems, "Gitanjali."

  2. Multi-Talented: Tagore was not only a poet but also a novelist, playwright, essayist, painter, composer, and philosopher. His creativity spanned across various artistic domains.

  3. National Anthem: Tagore wrote the national anthems of two countries: "Jana Gana Mana," which became the national anthem of India, and "Amar Shonar Bangla," which became the national anthem of Bangladesh.

  4. Visva-Bharati University: Tagore founded Visva-Bharati University in Santiniketan, West Bengal, in 1921. This institution aimed to combine the best of Indian and Western educational philosophies.

  5. Literary Works: Tagore wrote prolifically in Bengali and his works include poetry, short stories, novels, plays, essays, and songs. Some of his notable works include "Gitanjali," "Gora," "The Home and the World," and "The Post Office."

  6. Universal Themes: Tagore's works often explored universal themes such as love, nature, spirituality, and humanism. His poetry is celebrated for its profound lyrical quality and philosophical depth.

  7. Knighthood: Tagore renounced his knighthood in protest against the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in 1919, where British troops killed hundreds of unarmed Indian civilians.

  8. Travels: Tagore traveled extensively during his lifetime, visiting countries such as Japan, the United States, and various European nations. His interactions with different cultures influenced his worldview and artistic expression.

  9. Literary Legacy: Tagore's literary legacy extends beyond his own writings. He played a significant role in the Bengal Renaissance and is regarded as one of the greatest poets and intellectuals in Indian literature.

  10. Philosophical Contributions: Tagore's philosophy, often referred to as Rabindranathism, emphasized the importance of spirituality, humanism, and the interconnectedness of all beings. His ideas continue to inspire thinkers and artists worldwide.


  1. Birth Date and Place: Swami Vivekananda was born on January 12, 1863, in Calcutta, British India (now Kolkata, India).

  2. Original Name: His birth name was Narendra Nath Datta.

  3. Disciple of Ramakrishna: Vivekananda was a disciple of the Indian mystic Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. After Ramakrishna's death, Vivekananda became a key figure in the spread of Ramakrishna's teachings.

  4. Chicago Address: In 1893, Vivekananda represented India and Hinduism at the Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago. His speech, which began with the famous words "Sisters and brothers of America," introduced Hinduism to the Western world and garnered him widespread acclaim.

  5. Founding of Ramakrishna Mission: After his return to India, Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Math and the Ramakrishna Mission, which are philanthropic organizations dedicated to the service of humanity.

  6. Philosophical Works: Vivekananda's teachings and lectures on Vedanta, Yoga, and spirituality have been compiled in several books, including "Raja Yoga," "Karma Yoga," and "Jnana Yoga."

  7. Universal Message: Vivekananda emphasized the importance of religious tolerance, universal acceptance, and the unity of all religions. He believed in the potential of every individual to realize their divinity and work for the betterment of society.

  8. Social Reformer: Vivekananda was not only a spiritual leader but also a social reformer. He advocated for education, women's rights, and the upliftment of the poor and marginalized sections of society.

  9. Early Death: Swami Vivekananda passed away on July 4, 1902, at the age of 39. Despite his relatively short life, his impact on Indian spirituality and the global understanding of Hinduism was profound.

  10. Legacy: Swami Vivekananda's teachings continue to inspire millions of people around the world. His birthday, January 12, is celebrated in India as National Youth Day.


  1. Birth Date: Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was born on October 31, 1875, in Nadiad, Gujarat, India.

  2. Education: He studied law in England and became a barrister.

  3. Political Career: Patel was deeply involved in the Indian independence movement led by Mahatma Gandhi. He served as the first Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister of India after independence in 1947.

  4. Iron Man of India: Patel earned the title of "Iron Man of India" for his firmness and leadership in integrating the princely states into the Indian Union after partition.

  5. Integration of Princely States: Patel played a pivotal role in convincing over 500 princely states to accede to the newly independent India, thereby ensuring territorial integrity and unity of the nation.

  6. Statue of Unity: The Statue of Unity, located in Gujarat, is the world's tallest statue, standing at a height of 182 meters (597 feet). It is dedicated to Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and was inaugurated on October 31, 2018, commemorating his birth anniversary.

  7. Unity Day: October 31st is observed as "Rashtriya Ekta Diwas" or National Unity Day in India to commemorate Sardar Patel's birth anniversary. It was introduced by the Government of India in 2014.

  8. Congress Leader: Patel was a prominent leader of the Indian National Congress and served as its president in 1931.

  9. Bardoli Satyagraha: Patel led the Bardoli Satyagraha in 1928, a successful non-violent revolt against the oppressive tax policies imposed by the British authorities in the Bardoli taluka of Gujarat.

  10. Postage Stamp: In 1991, India Post issued a commemorative postage stamp in honor of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

  11. Legacy: Patel's contributions to the Indian freedom struggle and the consolidation of India as a unified nation have earned him widespread respect and admiration across the country.


  1. Early Career: Before becoming a political activist, Mahatma Gandhi trained as a lawyer in London, England.

  2. South Africa: Gandhi's activism began in South Africa, where he fought against racial discrimination faced by Indians. It was here that he developed his philosophy of Satyagraha (nonviolent resistance).

  3. Nonviolence: Gandhi's philosophy of nonviolence (Ahimsa) was central to his approach to social and political change. He believed in the power of love and truth to overcome injustice.

  4. Salt March: One of Gandhi's most famous acts of civil disobedience was the Salt March in 1930, where he and his followers walked 240 miles to the Arabian Sea to protest against the British salt monopoly.

  5. Simple Living: Gandhi lived a simple and ascetic lifestyle. He dressed in a simple loincloth and shawl and advocated for self-sufficiency and sustainability.

  6. Hunger Strikes: Gandhi often used hunger strikes as a form of protest and to exert moral pressure on his opponents. He went on several hunger strikes throughout his life.

  7. Spinning Wheel: Gandhi promoted the use of the spinning wheel (Charkha) as a symbol of self-reliance and resistance to British textiles. He encouraged Indians to spin their own cloth as a way to boycott British goods.

  8. Assassination: Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated on January 30, 1948, by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist who opposed Gandhi's tolerance towards Muslims.

  9. Global Influence: Gandhi's principles of nonviolence and civil disobedience inspired many other civil rights movements around the world, including the American Civil Rights Movement led by Martin Luther King Jr.

  10. Legacy: Gandhi's legacy continues to inspire people around the world. He is revered not only as a political leader but also as a moral and spiritual guide.


  1. Birth: Subramania Bharati was born on December 11, 1882, in Ettayapuram, Tamil Nadu, India.

  2. Early Education: Bharati showed exceptional talent from a young age and began composing poems at the age of seven. He was proficient in multiple languages, including Tamil, Sanskrit, and English.

  3. Literary Works: He wrote prolifically on a wide range of subjects, including nationalism, social reform, love, spirituality, and equality. His works include poetry collections, essays, novels, and prose.

  4. Nationalism: Bharati was a staunch advocate of Indian nationalism and fought against British colonial rule through his writings and activism. He used his poetry to inspire patriotism and stir the masses to fight for independence.

  5. Women's Rights: Bharati was ahead of his time in advocating for women's rights and empowerment. He wrote extensively on gender equality and women's education, challenging traditional societal norms.

  6. Journalism: Bharati was actively involved in journalism and edited several newspapers and magazines. He used these platforms to spread his ideas on social reform and national awakening.

  7. Exile: Due to his revolutionary writings against British rule, Bharati faced persecution and was forced to live in exile in Pondicherry, which was then a French colony, to escape arrest.

  8. Spiritualism: Bharati was deeply interested in spirituality and explored various religious and philosophical concepts in his works. He advocated for a rational and progressive interpretation of religion.

  9. Legacy: Subramania Bharati is considered one of the greatest Tamil poets of the 20th century and a pioneer of modern Tamil literature. His works continue to inspire generations of poets, writers, and activists.

  10. Death: Bharati passed away on September 11, 1921, at the young age of 38. Despite his relatively short life, his impact on Tamil literature and the Indian freedom movement is profound and enduring.

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