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NATIONAL SYMBOLS OF INDIA

Updated: Apr 6





National Animal of India


  1. Scientific Classification: The Bengal Tiger belongs to the genus Panthera and the species tigris. It is one of the six surviving tiger subspecies.

  2. Habitat: Bengal Tigers are found primarily in India, with significant populations also present in Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and Myanmar. They inhabit a variety of ecosystems including tropical rainforests, mangrove swamps, grasslands, and temperate forests.

  3. Physical Characteristics: Bengal Tigers are distinguished by their orange coat with black stripes, which are unique to each individual. They have a muscular build and can weigh up to 500 pounds (227 kilograms) for males and around 300 pounds (136 kilograms) for females. They are also known for their powerful jaws and sharp teeth.

  4. Diet: Tigers are carnivores and primarily prey on large mammals such as deer, wild boar, and buffalo. They are apex predators and play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of their ecosystems.

  5. Conservation Status: The Bengal Tiger is listed as Endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) due to habitat loss, poaching, and human-wildlife conflict. Conservation efforts, including protected areas and anti-poaching measures, are being implemented to safeguard their populations.

  6. Cultural Significance: Tigers hold a special place in Indian culture and mythology. They are often depicted as symbols of power, strength, and grace. In Hindu mythology, the goddess Durga is often depicted riding a tiger.

  7. National Emblem: The Bengal Tiger is depicted on the Indian rupee notes and is also the mascot of several Indian sports teams.

  8. The Bengal Tiger is known for its distinctive roar, which can be heard up to 3 kilometers (almost 2 miles) away.

  9. This roar serves several purposes, including communication between individuals, marking territory, and asserting dominance. Additionally, despite their large size and fearsome reputation, Bengal Tigers are excellent swimmers and are known to traverse rivers and lakes in search of prey.

  10. They are one of the few big cats that enjoy water and are proficient swimmers, often surprising prey by attacking from the water.


National Anthem


  1. Title: The National Anthem of India is called "Jana Gana Mana." It translates to "Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People" in English.

  2. Author: The lyrics of "Jana Gana Mana" were written by Rabindranath Tagore in Bengali. It was adopted as the National Anthem of India on January 24, 1950, by the Constituent Assembly of India.

  3. Tune: The tune of the National Anthem was also composed by Rabindranath Tagore. It was first sung during the Indian National Congress session in Calcutta (now Kolkata) on December 27, 1911.

  4. Language: The National Anthem is sung in Bengali. It was initially written in Sanskritized Bengali, known as Sadhu Bengali.

  5. Duration: The complete rendition of the National Anthem lasts for approximately 52 seconds.

  6. Occasions: "Jana Gana Mana" is sung on various occasions, including the Independence Day and Republic Day celebrations, at the start of formal governmental functions, and at the beginning of cultural events.

  7. Verses: The National Anthem consists of five stanzas. However, only the first stanza is designated as the official version.

  8. Symbolism: The National Anthem reflects Tagore's vision of India and its diverse culture, celebrating unity amidst diversity.

  9. Respect: It is customary for people to stand in attention when the National Anthem is played or sung. Hats or caps should be removed, and hands should be placed over the heart.

  10. One interesting trivia about the Indian National Anthem is that it was initially written to honor King George V of the United Kingdom, during his visit to India in 1911.

  11. However, it underwent a transformation and became a song of praise for the entire nation rather than just one individual.

  12. This transformation showcases Tagore's evolving nationalist sentiments and his belief in the unity of India.


National Bird


  1. Appearance: The Indian Peafowl is famous for its extravagant and colorful plumage. The male, known as a peacock, boasts a vibrant blue-green crest on its head, a long train of iridescent blue and green feathers, and striking eye-spots. The female, called a peahen, is less colorful with a mainly brown plumage.

  2. Distribution: This species is native to the Indian subcontinent and is found throughout India, as well as in parts of Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bangladesh. It has also been introduced to many other parts of the world.

  3. Habitat: Indian Peafowls inhabit a variety of habitats including forests, scrublands, agricultural areas, and even urban areas. They are often found near water sources.

  4. Diet: They are omnivores and feed on a varied diet including grains, insects, fruits, and small mammals.

  5. Breeding: Peafowls are polygamous birds. During the breeding season, which typically occurs during the monsoon months in India, males display their elaborate plumage and perform intricate courtship dances to attract females.

  6. Symbolism: The Indian Peafowl holds significant cultural and religious symbolism in Indian mythology and traditions. It is associated with various Hindu gods and goddesses, particularly Saraswati and Lakshmi.

  7. Conservation: While not currently classified as threatened, the Indian Peafowl faces threats from habitat loss, hunting, and poaching. Conservation efforts are in place to protect their populations.

  8. The Indian Peafowl is not just admired for its beauty but also for its unusual call. Its loud, high-pitched "meow" or "miaow" call is often heard during the breeding season.

  9. The peacock's train, consisting of elongated upper tail feathers with colorful "eyes" or "ocelli", is one of the most striking features of the bird. Despite its impressive appearance, it serves no practical purpose in terms of flight or survival. Instead, it is primarily used in courtship displays to attract mates.

  10. Peafowls are capable of short, sustained flights despite the weight and length of their plumage. However, they prefer to stay on the ground, using their strong legs to run from danger.

  11. The Indian Peafowl is one of the largest and most recognizable members of the pheasant family, known as Phasianidae.


National Heritage Animal


  1. Significance: The Indian Elephant holds immense cultural, ecological, and religious significance in India. It symbolizes power, wisdom, and strength.

  2. Habitat: Indian Elephants are primarily found in the forested regions of India, including national parks and wildlife sanctuaries.

  3. Physical Characteristics: They are the largest land animals in Asia, with males reaching heights of up to 3 meters (10 feet) at the shoulder and weighing as much as 5,000 kilograms (11,000 pounds). They are characterized by their long trunk, large ears, and tusks.

  4. Social Structure: Indian Elephants are highly social animals, living in matriarchal herds led by the oldest and largest female, known as the matriarch.

  5. Diet: They are herbivores, feeding mainly on grasses, leaves, bark, and fruits.

  6. Endangered Status: Indian Elephants are classified as endangered due to habitat loss, fragmentation, and human-elephant conflicts.

  7. Conservation Efforts: The Indian government, along with various conservation organizations, is actively involved in the conservation and protection of Indian Elephants through habitat preservation, anti-poaching efforts, and mitigation of human-elephant conflicts.

  8. The Indian Elephant is the only surviving subspecies of the Asian Elephant found in the Indian subcontinent.

  9. This subspecies is characterized by its smaller size, rounded ears, and relatively thicker body compared to other Asian elephant subspecies.

  10. In Hindu mythology, the elephant-headed god Ganesha is one of the most revered deities. Ganesha is worshipped as the remover of obstacles, the patron of arts and sciences, and the god of intellect and wisdom. This reflects the deep cultural connection between Indians and elephants.

  11. Elephants have a highly developed sense of smell, which they use for communication, finding food, and detecting danger.

  12. They possess an olfactory bulb that is four times larger than that of humans, enabling them to detect scents from great distances.

  13. Indian Elephants are excellent swimmers and can cross rivers and streams with ease. They use their trunks as natural snorkels, allowing them to breathe while submerged underwater.

  14. Despite their massive size, Indian Elephants are surprisingly agile and can move silently through dense forests, aided by their soft, padded feet that minimize noise.

  15. Indian Elephants have been used historically in various cultural events and ceremonies, including religious processions, festivals, and royal events, showcasing their importance in Indian culture and heritage.


National Aquatic Animal


  1. Endangered Status: The Ganges River Dolphin is classified as an endangered species by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature). Its population is declining due to various threats including habitat loss, pollution, and accidental entanglement in fishing gear.

  2. Habitat: This species is primarily found in the freshwater rivers of India, particularly in the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and their tributaries. They prefer deep waters with strong currents.

  3. Physical Characteristics: Ganges River Dolphins have a long, slender body, and they lack a true dorsal fin. Their beak is long and thin, and they have small eyes that lack a lens, indicating poor eyesight. They navigate and find food using echolocation.

  4. Diet: Their diet mainly consists of fish and crustaceans. They use echolocation to locate their prey in muddy waters.

  5. Social Structure: Ganges River Dolphins are typically solitary animals, although they may occasionally form small groups. They are known to be shy and elusive, making them difficult to study in the wild.

  6. Cultural Significance: In Indian culture, the Ganges River Dolphin is revered as a sacred animal, particularly by Hindus who consider the Ganges River itself holy. However, despite this cultural significance, the species faces numerous threats to its survival.

  7. Conservation Efforts: Conservation efforts are underway to protect the Ganges River Dolphin and its habitat. Initiatives include habitat conservation, reducing pollution, and raising awareness among local communities.

  8. Ganges River Dolphins are one of the only four freshwater dolphin species in the world. The other three are the Amazon River Dolphin, the Yangtze River Dolphin (now functionally extinct), and the Indus River Dolphin.


National Reptile


  1. Scientific Classification: The King Cobra belongs to the family Elapidae and is the world's longest venomous snake.

  2. Distribution: It is found predominantly in forests across India, as well as in other parts of Southeast Asia.

  3. Physical Description: King Cobras are easily recognizable by their distinctive hood, which they spread when threatened. They have olive-green, brown, or black scales with yellow bands.

  4. Size: They are among the largest venomous snakes in the world, capable of reaching lengths of up to 18 feet (5.5 meters).

  5. Diet: King Cobras primarily feed on other snakes, including venomous and non-venomous species. They also consume lizards, rodents, and birds.

  6. Venom: Though their venom is extremely potent, King Cobras are not typically aggressive towards humans unless provoked. However, their venom can be fatal if not treated promptly.

  7. Behavior: These snakes are solitary and highly elusive. They are primarily active during the day and are excellent climbers.

  8. Reproduction: King Cobras are oviparous, meaning they lay eggs. Females construct nests made of leaves and other debris where they lay their eggs. They fiercely guard the eggs until they hatch.

  9. Conservation Status: While King Cobras are not currently listed as endangered, they face threats from habitat loss, illegal wildlife trade, and human encroachment.

  10. Cultural Significance: In Indian culture, the King Cobra is often associated with mythology and is sometimes revered as a deity. It is also used as a symbol in various cultural and religious contexts.

  11. The King Cobra is the only snake species known to build nests for their eggs.

  12. Despite their fearsome reputation, King Cobras are actually quite shy and will usually try to avoid confrontation with humans.

  13. They possess the ability to "stand up" and look a human in the eye due to their flexible rib cage and strong muscles.

  14. King Cobras are highly intelligent snakes and have been observed using their intelligence to hunt and survive in their natural habitats.


National Tree


  1. Symbolism: The Banyan Tree is considered sacred in Indian culture and is often associated with longevity and immortality. It symbolizes the interconnectedness of all living beings.

  2. Size and Growth: Banyan Trees are known for their vast size and expansive canopy. They are capable of spreading over large areas, with branches that grow downwards to the ground and form additional trunks.

  3. Historical Significance: Many ancient Indian scriptures and texts mention the Banyan Tree. It is believed that Lord Buddha attained enlightenment while meditating under a Banyan Tree in Bodh Gaya, India.

  4. Ecological Importance: Banyan Trees play a crucial role in the ecosystem by providing shade, shelter, and habitat for various birds, animals, and insects. They also help in soil conservation and preventing erosion.

  5. Medicinal Uses: Different parts of the Banyan Tree, such as the bark, roots, and leaves, have been used in traditional Indian medicine for treating various ailments like asthma, diarrhea, and dysentery.

  6. Cultural Significance: Banyan Trees are often found near temples, shrines, and other sacred sites in India. People offer prayers and tie threads around their trunks as a form of worship.

  7. Longevity: Banyan Trees are known for their longevity and can live for several hundred years. Some ancient Banyan Trees in India are believed to be over 2000 years old.

  8. One interesting trivia about the Banyan Tree is its unique method of propagation.

  9. The Banyan Tree is an example of a "strangler fig," meaning it starts its life as an epiphyte, germinating in the crevices of another tree.

  10. As it grows, its roots extend downwards and eventually envelop the host tree, often causing it to die off, leaving the Banyan Tree standing alone. This process gives the Banyan Tree its distinctive appearance and contributes to its symbolic significance in Indian culture.


National Fruit


  1. Varieties: India is home to over a thousand varieties of mangoes, ranging in flavor, shape, and size. Some popular varieties include Alphonso, Dasheri, Langra, Kesar, and Totapuri.

  2. Cultural Significance: Mango holds a special place in Indian culture and tradition. It is often referred to as the "king of fruits" and is associated with festivals, rituals, and celebrations.

  3. Nutritional Value: Mangoes are rich in vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. They are a good source of vitamin C, vitamin A, and fiber, which contribute to overall health and well-being.

  4. Economic Importance: Mango cultivation is a significant agricultural activity in India, contributing to the economy and providing livelihoods to many farmers and workers.

  5. Global Export: India is one of the largest producers and exporters of mangoes in the world. Indian mangoes are exported to various countries, including the United States, European Union, and Middle Eastern nations.

  6. Versatile Usage: Mangoes are consumed in various forms, including fresh fruit, juices, smoothies, jams, chutneys, and desserts. They are also used in culinary dishes such as salads, curries, and pickles.

  7. Seasonality: Mangoes are primarily a summer fruit in India, with the peak season typically occurring from April to June. However, different varieties have varying ripening periods, extending the availability of mangoes throughout the year.

  8. Mango Diplomacy: In 1986, India gifted a basket of mangoes to Pakistan's military dictator, General Zia-ul-Haq, during a summit meeting.

  9. This gesture, known as "Mango Diplomacy," aimed to improve diplomatic relations between the two countries.

  10. Since then, the exchange of mangoes between Indian and Pakistani leaders has become a symbol of goodwill and diplomacy between the two nations, despite their often tense political relations.


National River


  1. Length: The Ganges is one of the longest rivers in India, stretching about 2,525 kilometers (1,569 miles) from its source in the Himalayas to its delta in the Bay of Bengal.

  2. Significance: The Ganges holds immense cultural, religious, and economic significance for the people of India. It is considered sacred in Hinduism and is worshipped as the goddess Ganga.

  3. Population and Agriculture: The Ganges Basin is one of the most densely populated regions in the world, supporting millions of people who rely on its waters for drinking, irrigation, and other daily needs.

  4. Pollution Concerns: Despite its religious significance, the Ganges is one of the most polluted rivers in the world due to industrial waste, sewage, and agricultural runoff. Efforts are being made to clean up the river, including the government's Namami Gange program.

  5. Biodiversity: The Ganges River Basin is home to a diverse array of flora and fauna, including several endangered species such as the Ganges river dolphin and the Gharial (a type of crocodile).

  6. Hydropower: The Ganges River and its tributaries have significant hydropower potential, with several dams and hydroelectric projects constructed along its course to generate electricity.

  7. Cultural Importance: The Ganges has been celebrated in Indian literature, art, and folklore for centuries, with countless poems, songs, and stories dedicated to its beauty and mystique.

  8. One of the most interesting and unique facts about the Ganges River is its ability to purify itself.

  9. Despite being heavily polluted in some stretches, particularly in urban areas, the Ganges has a remarkable ability to cleanse itself due to its high levels of biodiversity and unique flow dynamics.

  10. Microorganisms present in the river water help break down organic pollutants, and the swift flow of the river aids in diluting contaminants.

  11. This phenomenon has fascinated scientists for decades and highlights the complex interplay between natural processes and human activities in river ecosystems.


Vande Mataram


  1. Origin: Vande Mataram was composed by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1876 in his novel "Anandamath." The song was later included in the 1882 version of Chattopadhyay's famous Bengali novel.

  2. Translation: The phrase "Vande Mataram" translates to "I bow to thee, Mother" in Sanskrit.

  3. National Song: Although not officially declared as the national anthem, Vande Mataram holds a special place in the hearts of Indians and is considered the "national song" of India.

  4. Role in Indian Independence Movement: Vande Mataram became a rallying cry for freedom fighters during India's struggle for independence from British rule. It inspired many to fight for the country's liberation.

  5. Controversy: Despite its popularity, Vande Mataram has faced controversies due to its association with Hindu nationalism and religious sentiments. Some Muslims object to certain verses of the song, leading to debates about its usage in public functions.

  6. Adaptations: Vande Mataram has been adapted into various languages and musical renditions, reflecting India's linguistic and cultural diversity.

  7. Literary Significance: Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay's composition of Vande Mataram is regarded as one of the finest examples of Bengali literature.

  8. Vande Mataram was sung at the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress, marking a significant moment in the Indian independence movement.

  9. In 1905, when Bengal was partitioned by the British, Vande Mataram became the rallying cry against the partition, with protests and demonstrations echoing its verses.

  10. The first two verses of Vande Mataram were adopted as the national song of India by the Indian National Congress in 1937.

  11. In 2006, a rendition of Vande Mataram by A.R. Rahman was released, which became immensely popular and sparked a resurgence of interest in the song.

  12. Vande Mataram is often sung at various national and cultural events in India, evoking a sense of patriotism and unity among the people.













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